Our Ingredients & Sun Protection

Our Ingredients & Sun Protection

Absorbs UV Light

Beta Carotene (Vitamin A Activity)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect cells
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn2
  • Improves wrinkles and elasticity3
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced epidermal damage
  • Absorbs UV light penetrating the skin4
Lutein (Carotenoid)
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn16, 17, 18, 19
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage20
  • Decreases photo-aging21
  • Yellow pigment helps protect the retina
Lycopene
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn 18, 22, 23
  • Increases skin collagen
  • Absorbs UV light24

Increases Exposure Needed for Sunburn

Beta Carotene (Vitamin A Activity)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect cells
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn2
  • Improves wrinkles and elasticity3
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced epidermal damage
  • Absorbs UV light penetrating the skin4
Citrus Bioflavonoids
  • Increases UV exposure needed for sunburn 10
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage11
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation11
Lutein (Carotenoid)
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn16, 17, 18, 19
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage20
  • Decreases photo-aging21
  • Yellow pigment helps protect the retina
Lycopene
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn 18, 22, 23
  • Increases skin collagen
  • Absorbs UV light24
Polypodium Leucotomos
  • Antioxidant properties neutralize free radicals46, 47
  • Supports Langerhan immune cells which decrease UV toxicity41
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage and cell death42, 45
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn43, 48, 49
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation40, 44
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

 

  • Can increase collagen production34
  • Protects against UVA and UVB damage 34
  • Corrects pigmentation problems 34
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation 34
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn
Vitamin E
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation
  • Stabilizes skin barrier
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn 37

Antioxidant

Beta Carotene (Vitamin A Activity)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect cells
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn2
  • Improves wrinkles and elasticity3
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced epidermal damage
  • Absorbs UV light penetrating the skin4
Billberry Fruit
  • Decreases redness from sunburn
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation5
  • Decreases UV-induced oxidation and DNA damage in the eye6,7
  • Decreases UV-induced skin cell damage8, 9
Alphalipoic Acid
  • Protects the eyes from UVB damage1
Citrus Bioflavonoids
  • Increases UV exposure needed for sunburn 10
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage11
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation11
Copper
  • Antioxidant role as cofactor for enzyme superoxide dismutase12
CO-Q10
  • Helps stop the breakdown of collagen13
  • Strongly inhibits oxidative stress induced by UVB14
EGCG (Catechin)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage15
  • Inhibits UV-induced DNA damage
  • Repairs UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation15
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression15
  • Improve DNA repair mechanism
  • Acts as anti-aging agent
Grape Seed Extract (proanthocyanidins)
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation54
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage
  • Supports antioxidant defense proteins
Lutein (Carotenoid)
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn16, 17, 18, 19
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage20
  • Decreases photo-aging21
  • Yellow pigment helps protect the retina
Selenium
  • Keeps ‘master antioxidant’ glutathione in its active form decreasing UV damage25, 26
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation27
Soy Isoflavones
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage
  • Improves skin appearance; anti-aging28
  • Photo-protective 29, 30, 31
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation 32, 33
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression 32
Sylimarin (Milk Thistle)
  • Inhibits disruption of cell function
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation53
  • Supports proteins involved in the cell life cycle
  • Photo-protective
  • Increases concentration of ‘master antioxidant’ glutathione decreasing UV damage
Zinc
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage
  • Increases resistance to UV radiation38
  • Stabilizes cell membranes, serves as an essential cofactor for several metalloenzymes, and participates in basal cell mitosis and differentiation39

Decreases DNA Damage

Beta Carotene (Vitamin A Activity)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect cells
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn2
  • Improves wrinkles and elasticity3
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced epidermal damage
  • Absorbs UV light penetrating the skin4
EGCG (Catechin)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage15
  • Inhibits UV-induced DNA damage
  • Repairs UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation15
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression15
  • Improve DNA repair mechanism
  • Acts as anti-aging agent
Billberry Fruit
  • Decreases redness from sunburn
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation5
  • Decreases UV-induced oxidation and DNA damage in the eye6,7
  • Decreases UV-induced skin cell damage8
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
  • Involved in DNA repair and maintaining the skin barrier 51
  • Enhances epidermal barrier integrity
Polypodium Leucotomos
  • Antioxidant properties neutralize free radicals46, 47
  • Supports Langerhan immune cells which decrease UV toxicity41
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage and cell death42, 45
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn43, 48, 49
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation40, 44
Vitamin D
  • Helps produce melanin (pigment) faster and retain it longer
  • Decreases DNA damage
  • Increases DNA repair36
  • Supports the immune system
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation35
  • Stops skin cell proliferation36

Decreases UV Induced Inflammation

Billberry Fruit
  • Decreases redness from sunburn
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation5
  • Decreases UV-induced oxidation and DNA damage in the eye6,7
  • Decreases UV-induced skin cell damage8, 9
Citrus Bioflavonoids
  • Increases UV exposure needed for sunburn 10
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage11
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation11
EGCG (Catechin)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage15
  • Inhibits UV-induced DNA damage
  • Repairs UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation15
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression15
  • Improve DNA repair mechanism
  • Acts as anti-aging agent
Grape Seed Extract (proanthocyanidins)
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation54
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage
  • Supports antioxidant defense proteins
Polypodium Leucotomos
  • Antioxidant properties neutralize free radicals46, 47
  • Supports Langerhan immune cells which decrease UV toxicity41
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage and cell death42, 45
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn43, 48, 49
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation40, 44
Resveratrol
  • Inhibits UV-induced inflammation & disruption of cell function52
  • Photo-protective
Selenium
  • Keeps ‘master antioxidant’ glutathione in its active form decreasing UV damage25, 26
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation27
Soy Isoflavones
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage
  • Improves skin appearance; anti-aging28
  • Photo-protective 29, 30, 31
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation 32, 33
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression 32
Sylimarin (Milk Thistle)
  • Inhibits disruption of cell function
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation53
  • Supports proteins involved in the cell life cycle
  • Photo-protective
  • Increases concentration of ‘master antioxidant’ glutathione decreasing UV damage
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Can increase collagen production34
  • Protects against UVA and UVB damage 34
  • Corrects pigmentation problems 34
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation 34
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn
Vitamin D
  • Helps produce melanin (pigment) faster and retain it longer
  • Decreases DNA damage
  • Increases DNA repair36
  • Supports the immune system
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation35
  • Stops skin cell proliferation36
Vitamin E
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation
  • Stabilizes skin barrier
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn 37

Supports Skin Immunity

EGCG (Catechin)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage15
  • Inhibits UV-induced DNA damage
  • Repairs UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation15
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression15
  • Improve DNA repair mechanism
  • Acts as anti-aging agent
Niacin (Vitamin B3)
  •   Supports skin immune cells50
Polypodium Leucotomos
  • Antioxidant properties neutralize free radicals46, 47
  • Supports Langerhan immune cells which decrease UV toxicity41
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage and cell death42, 45
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn43, 48, 49
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation40, 44
Soy Isoflavones
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage
  • Improves skin appearance; anti-aging28
  • Photo-protective 29, 30, 31
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation 32, 33
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression 32
Vitamin D
  • Helps produce melanin (pigment) faster and retain it longer
  • Decreases DNA damage
  • Increases DNA repair36
  • Supports the immune system
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation35
  • Stops skin cell proliferation36

Eye Protection

Alphalipoic Acid
  • Protects the eyes from UVB damage1
Billberry Fruit
  • Decreases redness from sunburn
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation5
  • Decreases UV-induced oxidation and DNA damage in the eye6,7
  • Decreases UV-induced skin cell damage8, 9
Lutein (Carotenoid)
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn16, 17, 18, 19
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage20
  • Decreases photo-aging21
  • Yellow pigment helps protect the retina

Decreases Skin Aging

Beta Carotene (Vitamin A Activity)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect cells
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn2
  • Improves wrinkles and elasticity3
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced epidermal damage
  • Absorbs UV light penetrating the skin4
CO-Q10
  • Helps stop the breakdown of collagen13
  • Strongly inhibits oxidative stress induced by UVB14
EGCG (Catechin)
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage15
  • Inhibits UV-induced DNA damage
  • Repairs UV-induced DNA damage
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation15
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression15
  • Improve DNA repair mechanism
  • Acts as anti-aging agent
Lutein (Carotenoid)
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn16, 17, 18, 19
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage20
  • Decreases photo-aging21
  • Yellow pigment helps protect the retina
Lycopene
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn 18, 22, 23
  • Increases skin collagen
  • Absorbs UV light24
Polypodium Leucotomos
  • Antioxidant properties neutralize free radicals46, 47
  • Supports Langerhan immune cells which decrease UV toxicity41
  • Decreases UV-induced DNA damage and cell death42, 45
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn43, 48, 49
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation40, 44
Soy Isoflavones
  • Antioxidant qualities protect from UV damage
  • Improves skin appearance; anti-aging28
  • Photo-protective 29, 30, 31
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation 32, 33
  • Decreases UV-induced immunosuppression 32
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Can increase collagen production34
  • Protects against UVA and UVB damage 34
  • Corrects pigmentation problems 34
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation 34
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn

Supports Skin Barrier

Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
  • Involved in DNA repair and maintaining the skin barrier51
  • Enhances epidermal barrier integrity
Vitamin E
  • Decreases UV-induced inflammation
  • Stabilizes skin barrier
  • Increases sun exposure needed to cause sunburn 37

UVO is meant to be a supplement to help protect you from sun damage to your skin. It does not help diagnose, treat or cure any disease.

Bibliography of Research Related to UVO Ingredients
  1. (Chen BY, Lin DP, Chang LS, Huang TP, Liu HJ, Luk CP, Lo YL, Chang HH. Dietary α-lipoic acid prevents UVB-induced corneal and conjunctival degeneration   through multiple effects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Nov 5;54(10):6757-66.)
  2. (Heinrich U, Gärtner C, Wiebusch M, Eichler O, Sies H, Tronnier H, Stahl W. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):98-101.)
  3. (Cho S, Lee DH, Won CH, Kim SM, Lee S, Lee MJ, Chung JH. Differential effects of low-dose and high-dose beta-carotene supplementation on the signs of photoaging and type I procollagen gene expression in human skin in vivo.)
  4. (Stahl W1, Sies H. β-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1179S-84S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.034819. Epub 2012 Oct 10.)
  5. (Roth S, Spalinger MR, Müller I, Lang S, Rogler G, Scharl M. Bilberry-Derived Anthocyanins Prevent IFN-γ-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Signaling and Cytokine Secretion in Human THP-1 Monocytic Cells. Digestion. 2014;90(3):179-89.)
  6. (Aly EM, Ali MA. Effects of bilberry on deoxyribonucleic Acid damage and oxidant-antioxidant balance in the lens, induced by ultraviolet radiation. Malays J Med Sci. 2014 Jan;21(1):11-8.)
  7. (Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Tanaka J, Kakino M, Kobayashi S, Shimazawa M, Hara H. The  protective effects of bilberry and lingonberry extracts against UV light-induced  retinal photoreceptor cell damage in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Oct 30;61(43):10345-53.)
  8. (Calò R, Marabini L. Protective effect of Vaccinium myrtillus extract against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). J Photochem Photobiol B. 2014 Mar 5;132:27-35.)
  9. (Svobodová A, Zdarilová A, Vostálová J. Lonicera caerulea and Vaccinium myrtillus fruit polyphenols protect HaCaT keratinocytes against UVB-induced phototoxic stress and DNA damage. J Dermatol Sci. 2009 Dec;56(3):196-204.)
  10. (Pérez-Sánchez A, Barrajón-Catalán E, Caturla N, Castillo J, Benavente-García O, Alcaraz M, Micol V. Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2014 Jul 5;136:12-8.)
  11. (Parhiz H, Roohbakhsh A, Soltani F, Rezaee R, Iranshahi M. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Citrus Flavonoids Hesperidin and Hesperetin: An Updated Review of their Molecular Mechanisms and Experimental Models. Phytother Res. 2014 Nov 13.)
  12. (Harris ED. Copper as a cofactor and regulator of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. J Nutr 122: 636-640)
  13. (M. Inui, M. Ooe, K. Fuji, H. Matsunaka, M. Yoshida, and M Ichihashi. Mechanisms of inhibitory effects of CoQ10 on UVB-induced wrinkle formation in vitro and in vivo. BioFactors, vol 32, no 1-4, pp 237-243, 2008.)
  14. (D.W, Kim, IK Hwang, DW Kim et al. Coenzyme Q10 effects on manganeses superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the hairless mouse skin induced by ultraviolet B irradiation. BioFactors, vol 30, no 3, pp 139-147, 2007.)
  15. (Katiyar SK Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2003 Sep;3(3):234-42. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.)
  16. (Heinrich U, Gärtner C, Wiebusch M, Eichler O, Sies H, Tronnier H, Stahl W. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):98-101.)
  17. (Stahl W1, Sies H. Photoprotection by dietary carotenoids: concept, mechanisms, evidence and future development. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Feb;56(2):287-95.)
  18. (Stahl W1, Krutmann J. Systemic photoprotection through carotenoids. Hautarzt. 2006 Apr;57(4):281-5.)
  19. (Beneficial long-term effects of combined oral/topical antioxidant treatment with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on human skin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;20(4):199-210. Epub 2007 Apr 19.)
  20. (Shegokar R1, Mitri K. Carotenoid lutein: a promising candidate for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. J Diet Suppl. 2012 Sep;9(3):183-210.)
  21. (Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin partially reduces photoaging and photocarcinogenesis in chronically UVB-irradiated Skh-1 hairless mice. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;20(6):283-91.)
  22. (Heinrich U, Gärtner C, Wiebusch M, Eichler O, Sies H, Tronnier H, Stahl W. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):98-101.)
  23. (Stahl W1, Heinrich U, Aust O, Tronnier H, Sies H. Lycopene-rich products and dietary photoprotection. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2006 Feb;5(2):238-42.)
  24. (Stahl W1, Sies H. β-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1179S-84S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.034819. Epub 2012 Oct 10.)
  25. (Rafferty TS, McKenzie RC, Hunter JA, et al. Differential expression of selenoproteins by human skin cells and protection by selenium from UVB-radiation-induced cell death. Biochem J. 1998;332(Pt 1):231-236.)
  26. (McKenzie RC. Selenium, ultraviolet radiation and the skin. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000;25(8):631-636.)
  27. (Thorling EB, Overvad K, Bjerring P. Oral selenium inhibits skin reactions to UV light in hairless mice. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand A. 1983 Jan;91(1):81-3.)
  28. (Izumi T, Saito M, Obata A, Arii M, Yamaguchi H, Matsuyama  A. Oral intake of soy isoflavone aglycone improves the aged skin of adult women. J Nut Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007 Feb;53(1):57-62.)
  29. (Iovine B, Iannella ML, Gasparri F, Monfrecola G, Bevilacqua MA. Synergic Effect of Genistein and Daidzein on UVB-Induced DNA Damage: An Effective Photoprotective Combination. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011.)
  30. (Wei H, Saladi R, Lu Y, Wang Y, Palep SR, Moore J, Phelps R, Shyong E, Lebwohl MG. Isoflavone genistein: photoprotection and clinical implications in dermatology. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 1):3811S-3819S.)
  31. (Moore JO, Wang Y, Stebbins WG, Gao D, Zhou X, Phelps R, Lebwohl M, Wei H. Photoprotective effect of isoflavone genistein on ultraviolet B-induced pyrimidine dimer formation and PCNA expression in human reconstituted skin and its implications in dermatology and prevention of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Aug;27(8):1627-35.)
  32. (Widyarini S, Spinks N, Husband AJ, Reeve VE. Isoflavonoid compounds from red clover (Trifolium pratense) protect from inflammation and immune suppression induced by UV radiation.)
  33. (Hooshmand S, Soung do Y, Lucas EA, Madihally SV, Levenson CW, Arjmandi BH. Genistein reduces the production of proinflammatory molecules in human chondrocytes. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Sep;18(9):609-14.)
  34. (B. Poljsak, Skin aging, Antioxidants and Free Radicals. Nova Science, New York NY, USA, 2012.)
  35. (Gordon-Thomson C, Tongkao-on W, Song EJ, Carter SE, Dixon KM, Mason RS. Protection from ultraviolet damage and photocarcinogenesis by vitamin D compounds. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;810:303-28.)
  36. (Dixon KM, Tongkao-On W, Sequeira VB, Carter SE, Song EJ, Rybchyn MS,  Gordon-Thomson C, Mason RS. Vitamin D and death by sunshine. Int J Mol Sci. 2013  Jan 18;14(1):1964-77.)
  37. (Césarini JP1, Michel L, Maurette JM, Adhoute H, Béjot M.  Immediate effects of UV radiation on the skin: modification by an antioxidant complex containing carotenoids. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2003 Aug;19(4):182-9.)
  38. (MJ Richard, P Guiraud, MT Leccia, JC Beani, A Favier. Effect of zinc supplementation on resistance of cultured human skink fibroblasts toward oxidant stress. Biological Trace Elemental Research. vol 37, no 203, pp 187-199, 1993.)
  39. (Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen. 2007;15(1):2-16)
  40. Rodríguez-Yanes E, Juarranz Á, Cuevas J, Gonzalez S, Mallol J. Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice. Exp Dermatol. 2012 Aug;21(8):638-40.
  41. González S, Pathak MA, Cuevas J, Villarrubia VG, Fitzpatrick TB. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1997 Feb-Apr;13(1-2):50-60.
  42. Philips N, Conte J, Chen YJ, Natrajan P, Taw M, Keller T, Givant J, Tuason M, Dulaj L, Leonardi D, Gonzalez S. Beneficial regulation of matrixmetalloproteinases and their inhibitors, fibrillar collagens and transforming growth factor-beta by Polypodium leucotomos, directly or in dermalfibroblasts, ultraviolet radiated fibroblasts, and melanoma cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 2009 Aug;301(7):487-95.
  43. Gonzalez S, Gilaberte Y, Philips N, Mechanistic Insights in the use of a Polypodium leucotomos extract as an oral and topical photoprotective agent. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010 Apr;9(4):559-63.
  44. Aguilera P1, Carrera C, Puig-Butille JA, Badenas C, Lecha M, González S, Malvehy J, Puig S. Benefits of oral Polypodium Leucotomos extract in MM high-risk patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Sep;27(9):1095-100.
  45. Philips N, Dulaj L, Upadhya T. Cancer cell growth and extracellular matrix remodeling mechanism of ascorbate; beneficial modulation by P. leucotomos Anticancer Res. 2009 Aug;29(8):3233-8.
  46. Jansen R1, Wang SQ, Burnett M, Osterwalder U, Lim HW. Photoprotection: part I. Photoprotection by naturally occurring, physical, and systemic agents. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Dec;69(6):853.
  47. Palomino OM. Current knowledge in Polypodium leucotomos effect on skin protection. Arch Dermatol Res. 2015 Apr;307(3):199-209.
  48. El-Haj N, Goldstein N. Sun protection in a pill: the photoprotective properties of Polypodium leucotomos extract. Int J Dermatol. 2015 Mar;54(3):362-6.
  49. Goldstein N. Middelkamp-Hup MA, Pathak MA, Parrado C, Goukassian D, Rius-Díaz F, Mihm MC, Fitzpatrick TB, González S. Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Dec;51(6):910-8.
  50. Gensler HL1, Williams T, Huang AC, Jacobson EL. Oral niacin prevents photocarcinogenesis and photoimmunosuppression in mice. Nutr Cancer. 1999;34(1):36-41.
  51. Williams JD, Jacobson EL, Kim H, Kim M, Jacobson MK. Folate in skin cancer prevention. Subcell Biochem. 2012;56:181-97.
  52. Afaq F1, Katiyar SK.Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011 Dec;11(14):1200-15.
  53. Baliga MS, Katiyar SK. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2006 Feb;5(2):243-53.) (Afaq F1, Katiyar SK.Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011 Dec;11(14):1200-15.
  54. Katiyar SK. UV-induced immune suppression and photocarcinogenesis: chemoprevention by dietary botanical agents. Cancer Lett. 2007 Sep 18;255(1):1-11.
_